The Anammox process was developed by the Technical University of Delft and is an innovative treatment process for the removal of ammonium from wastewater. It is a shortcut in the nitrogen cycle in which ammonium is directly converted into nitrogen gas. The Anammox process occurs within one of the many granules present in the reactor. Half of the ammonium is oxidized into nitrite by nitration bacteria. Subsequently, Anammox bacteria convert the nitrite and the rest of the ammonium into nitrogen gas. The whole process takes place in one reactor which makes the Annamox process very compact. In conventional methods, at least two reactors are needed for the nitrification and denitrification steps. Another advantage of the Annamox process is that far less oxygen is required to drive the conversion of the ammonium, which substantially reduces the overall treatment cost. Anammox treatment is particularly suited for industrial wastewater high in ammonium content 🙂


Illustration retrieved from: on the 27th of August 2017

Engineering with Membranes 2017

Between the 26th and 28th of April the annual Engineering with Membranes was held in Singapore organised by the Singapore Membrane Technology Centre (SMTC). The main goal of the conference was to share knowledge on recent advances in membrane science and technology. Leading membrane specialists from around the world gave a total of 70 lectures covering desalination, reclamation & resource recovery, molecular separation, membrane fouling, gas separation, pre-treatment, industrial & bioprocess application and membrane monitoring. The Dutch representative at this conference was Dr. Emile Cornelissen, senior researcher at KWR, who presented his research on controlling Reverse Osmosis (RO) fouling after minimal pre-treatment. His main conclusion was that the 1-step RO scenario was approximately 20% lower in costs than the Ultrafiltration (UF) – RO scenario. Air/water cleaning is effective to control clogging, while lowering flux values results in less membrane fouling.